Published Scientific Studies on Microplastics

Here are just a few studies we have found in our research, indicating the truly devastating adverse health impacts these once thought to be safe chemicals have on human biology, but sadly there are many more.

Through ingestion of food containing microplastics, inhalation of microplastics in the air and by dermal contact of these particles, contained in products, textiles or in the dust we are constantly inundated with these contaminates.


There are hundreds and hundreds of published scientific studies on this subject.  Here are a few notable studies we have found in our research, indicating the truly devastating adverse health impacts these once thought to be safe chemicals have on human biology.

Perinatal Exposure to an Environmentally Relevant Mixture of Phthalates Results in a Lower Number of Neurons and Synapses in the Medial Prefrontal Cortex and Decreased Cognitive Flexibility in Adult Male and Female Rats

Daniel G. Kougias, Elli P. Sellinger, Jari Willing and Janice M. Juraska

"Overall, this study is unique in showing that perinatal exposure to an environmentally relevant mixture of phthalates had long-term effects on the mPFC neuroanatomy and behavior of adult rats. These effects were independent of sex, suggesting a common neurotoxic effect of phthalates in the developing cortex of males and females. Furthermore, these effects were seen at both doses of the phthalate mixture, which were relatively low compared with the existing rodent literature and are presumably within the range of the estimated daily intakes of humans. Thus, these results may have serious implications for humans given that mPFC is involved in executive functions and is implicated in the pathology of many neuropsychiatric disorders."


Health Effects of Microplastic Exposures: Current Issues and Perspectives in South Korea

Yongjin LeeJaelim ChoJungwoo Sohn, and Changsoo Kim

Published 2023, Apr 20

Notable passage:

"As such, microplastic exposure not only increases ROS production in cerebral and epithelial cells, but it also increases oxidative stress in colon and small intestine epithelial cells and lung epithelial cells. The results of animal experiments reported to date have shown that exposing mice to PS microplastics caused lipid-metabolism disturbance in the liver, increased oxidative stress and acetylcholine esterase activity, and induces microbiota dysbiosis in the intestine."


A Detailed Review Study on Potential Effects of Microplastics and Additives of Concern on Human Health

Claudia CampanaleCarmine MassarelliIlaria SavinoVito Locaputo, and Vito Felice Uricchio

Published online 2020, Feb 13

Notable passage:

"Recent science has associated EDCs with various diseases and conditions, such as hormonal cancers (breast, prostate, testes), reproductive problems (genital malformations, infertility), metabolic disorders (diabetes, obesity), asthma, and neurodevelopmental conditions (learning disorders, autism spectrum disorders). Alongside the already shown scientific evidence, concern exists because of the rising levels of many diseases in Europe and worldwide. Additionally, the public is widely exposed to these chemicals from various sources."

"One of the major nano and microplastic entry points into the human system is represented by the ingestion of contaminated food [,,,]. In a recent study conducted by [], 0.44 MPs/g of nano and microplastics were found in sugar, 0.11 MPs/g were found in salt, 0.03 MPs/g were found in alcohol, and 0.09 MPs/g were found in bottled water. Humans could also assume an estimated intake of 80 g per day of microplastics via plants (fruits and vegetable) that accumulate MPs through uptake from polluted soil."


The plastic brain: neurotoxicity of micro- and nanoplastics

Minne PrüstJonelle Meijer & Remco H. S. Westerink 

 Published online 2020, June 8

Notable passage:

" ...indicate that exposure to micro- and nanoplastics can induce oxidative stress, potentially resulting in cellular damage and an increased vulnerability to develop neuronal disorders. Additionally, exposure to micro- and nanoplastics can result in inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity and altered neurotransmitter levels, which both may contribute to the reported behavioral changes."


Bisphenol A and Human Health: A Review of the Literature

Johanna R. Rochester

Published in Reproductive Toxicology Volume 42, December 2013, Pages 132-155
Notable passage:

"This review outlines the literature-to-date examining the link between human BPA exposure and many adverse perinatal, childhood, and adult health outcomes, including reproductive effects: (A) fertility (i.e. ovarian response, fertilization success, embryo quality, and implantation failure), male sexual function, sperm quality, sex hormone concentrations, endometrial disorders, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), breast cancer, miscarriage, and premature delivery; (B) developmental effects: birth weight, male genital abnormalities, childhood behavior and neurodevelopment..."


Phthalates impact human health: Epidemiological evidences and plausible mechanism of action

Sailas Benjamin, Eiji Masai, Naofumi Kamimura, Kenji Takahashi, Robin C. Anderson, Panichikkal Abdul Faisal

Journal of Hazardous Materials Volume 340, 15 October 2017, Pages 360-383

Notable passage:

"All parts of human body have the potential for absorption of phthalates, even it can cross placenta, thereby impacting the fetes and neonates adversely."

"The “phthalate syndrome” or “testicular dysgenesis syndrome” is one of the major negative attributes of phthalate toxicity characterized by cryptorchidism, hypospadias, undescended testes, reduced anogenital distance, decrease in sperm count or its quality, increase in sterility and testicular cancer..."